The .NET Framework is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large library and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment, known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.
The .NET Framework's Base Class Library provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code with the .NET Framework and other libraries. The .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.
CLR – Common Language Runtime
The .NET framework provides a run-time environment called the Common Language Runtime, which runs the code & provides services that make the development process easier.
Compilers and tools expose the common language runtime's functionality and enable you to write code that benefits from this managed execution environment. Code that you develop with a language compiler that targets the runtime is called managed code; it benefits from features such as cross-language integration, cross-language exception handling, enhanced security, versioning and deployment support, a simplified model for component interaction, and debugging and profiling services.
The common language runtime makes it easy to design components and applications whose objects interact across languages. Objects written in different languages can communicate with each other, and their behaviors can be tightly integrated.
1. The common language runtime manages memory, thread execution, code execution, code safety verification, compilation, and other system services.
2. The runtime enforces code access security.
3. The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type-and-code-verification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS).
4. The runtime can be hosted by high-performance, server-side applications, such as Microsoft SQL Server and Internet Information Services (IIS).
.NET Framework Class Library
The .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. The class library is object oriented, providing types from which your own managed code can derive functionality. This not only makes the .NET Framework types easy to use, but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the .NET Framework. In addition, third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the .NET Framework.
The .NET Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks, including tasks such as string management, data collection, database connectivity, and file access. In addition to these common tasks, the class library includes types that support a variety of specialized development scenarios. For example, you can use the .NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services:
1. Console applications.
2. Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms).
3. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) applications.
4. ASP.NET applications.
5. Windows services.
6. Service-oriented applications using Windows Communication Foundation (WCF).
7. Workflow-enabled applications using Windows Workflow Foundation (WF).
.NET Framework 4.5
The .NET Framework is a development platform for building apps for Windows, Windows Phone, Windows Server, and Windows Azure. It consists of the common language runtime (CLR) and the .NET Framework class library, which includes classes, interfaces, and value types that support an extensive range of technologies. The .NET Framework provides a managed execution environment, simplified development and deployment, and integration with a variety of programming languages, including Visual Basic and Visual C#.
The following are the new features and improvements in the following areas of the .NET Framework 4.5.
- .NET for Windows Store Apps
- Portable Class Libraries
- Core New Features and Improvements
.NET Framework 4
The .NET Framework is an application development platform that provides services for building, deploying, and running desktop, web, and phone applications and web services. It consists of the common language runtime (CLR), which provides memory management and other system services, and an extensive class library, which includes tested, reusable code for all major areas of application development.
The following are the new features and improvements in the following areas of the .NET Framework 4.
- Application Compatibility and Deployment
- Core New Features and Improvements
- Managed Extensibility Framework
- Parallel Computing
.NET Framework 3.5
The .NET Framework is a technology that supports building and running the next generation of applications and Web services. The .NET Framework consists of the common language runtime (CLR) and the .NET Framework class library, which includes ADO.NET, ASP.NET, Windows Forms, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF). The .NET Framework provides a managed execution environment, simplified development and deployment, and integration with a wide variety of programming languages.
The following are the new features and improvements in the following areas of the .NET Framework 3.5.
- .NET Compact Framework
- .NET Framework Client Profile
- Click Once
- Common Language Runtime(CLR)
- Windows Forms
.NET Framework 3.0
The .NET Framework version 3.0 was issued solely to include the following technologies in the .NET Framework and in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK):
- Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)
- Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)
- Windows Workflow Foundation (WWF)
- Windows CardSpace
.NET Framework 2.0
The Microsoft .NET Framework version 2.0 extends the .NET Framework version 1.1 with new features, improvements to existing features, and enhancements to the documentation. This section provides information about some key additions and modifications.
The following are the new features and improvements in the following areas of the .NET Framework 2.
- 64-bit Platform Support
- SQL cache dependency
- Master Pages
- Membership and roles
- Distributed Computing
- Generics and Generic Collections
- Manifest-Based Activation
- Security Exceptions
- Serial I/O Device Support
- Web Services
- Windows Forms